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Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)

What is Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) injury?

The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) is a ligament located on the outer side of the knee and connects the femur (thigh bone) to the fibula (shin bone). The purpose of the LCL is to help keep the knee joint stable, especially on the outside. Injuries to the LCL range a sprain (grade I), partially rupture (grade II) to complete rupture of the ligament (grade III). This injury accounts for 7-16% of all knee ligament injuries.

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Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)

What is Medial Collateral Ligament(MCL)?

A Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) injury is sprain or tear of the MCL. This ligament is a band of tissue that connects the femur (thighbone) to the lower leg (tibia) on the inside of the knee. The primary function of the MCL is to prevent the knee from bending inwards, also known as a valgus force. The ligament also helps increase the stability of the knee joint.

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Fat pad impingement (Hoffa’s Syndrome)

What is it?

The fat pad is a soft tissue structure that sits below the kneecap (patella) right behind the patellar tendon. The fat pad acts as a cushion, protecting the condyle of the femur from being hit by the patella in the case of a direct blow to the kneecap. The fat pad contains many nerves, and at the time of injury, one experiences extreme knee pain. A person’s hip and/or knee alignment can cause the fat pad to become irritated and impinged.

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Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

What is it?

An ACL injury occurs in the knee through the tearing or over-stretching of the ACL. The tearing could be a partial or complete tear of the ligament. The ACL injury mostly affects women more than men. It occurs commonly during sports such as basketball, soccer, gymnastics, tennis, volleyball and downward skiing. Often when this injury occurs, a “pop” sound can be heard, the knee becomes swollen and extremely painful. It then becomes difficult to put weight on the injured leg and walking becomes a challenge.

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Osgood Schlatter’s

What is it?

Osgood Schlatter’s is an inflammation of the area below the knee which is known as the tibial tuberosity. This is where the tendon of the patella attaches itself to the tibia (the shin bone). It is a disease that affects the adolescents and young children who are experiencing growth. The muscles, tendons, bones and other various structures of these adolescents undergo rapid change. It occurs in children who are engaged in sports such as basketball, soccer, and ballet. These sports involve jumping, a sudden change in movement and running. This condition mostly heals itself as soon as the children’s bones and body tissues stop growing.

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ACL Reconstruction

What is it?

A common injury of the knee is a tearing of the ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament). This ligament is very important for the stability of the knee and often needs to be repaired surgically. The primary function of the ACL is to keep the bottom surface of the knee joint from sliding forwards during movement. An unrepaired knee may feel unstable or give way suddenly.

Not all ACL injuries require surgery and some may heal well with proper rehabilitation however, for those who do need surgery, there is a significant rehabilitation period afterwards.

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Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

What is it?

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury is a condition that affects the ligaments of the knee. PCL has an essential function in knee stability which prevents the femur to forward and tibia to displace backward. The PCL injury is less common than the anterior cruciate ligament injury. It is because the posterior cruciate ligament is much stronger and broader compared to the ACL.

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